Narrowing of the large arteries on either side of the neck that carry blood to the head, face and brain is known as Carotid artery stenosis. Stenosis can get worse over time, completely blocking the artery which would lead to stroke. This narrowing is generally a result of the build-up of plaque within the arteries, and this condition is known as atherosclerosis.
Carotid ultrasound, CT angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or cerebral angiography might be used to determine the presence and location of stenosis. To improve or restore blood flow treatment might include angioplasty and vascular stenting or, in severe cases, surgery.
When on each side of the neck the large arteries that carry blood to the head, face and brain become narrowed it leads to Carotid artery stenosis . The narrowing usually is because of atherosclerosis. With time, stenosis advances to complete blockage of the artery.
Risk factors for carotid artery stenosis are age, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity and an inactive lifestyle.
People who suffer from carotid artery stenosis experience dizziness, fainting and blurred vision which might be signs of the brain not being able to receive enough blood. A transient ischemic attack in a lot of cases, is the first symptom or a stroke because a small blood clot can also form inside the area of the vessel that has been affected by atherosclerosis. When such a small clot has been dislodged, it travels into the brain and would plug up a smaller artery on which a particular piece of the brain would depend for its function and ultimately survival. Symptoms of a Carotid artery stenosis and stroke are same most of the time: paralysis or numbness on either side of the body, vision becomes blurred, headache, there is trouble in speaking and there would be difficulty in responding to others. Carotid artery stenosis is generally brief and it does not leaves any lasting damage; it is because of a very small and temporary occlusion of a small artery but often a warning sign. A stroke is a lot of times linked with permanent injury of a part of the brain because of loss of its blood supply and therefore results in severe disability or might even lead to death.
Carotid vein stenosis now and again causes an unusual sound, or bruit, in the artery that can be heard with a stethoscope. Imaging tests to analyze, measure and measure stenosis include:
Extreme instances of stenosis regularly require carotid endarterectomy, in which a specialist makes a cut to evacuate plaque and any sick bit of the supply route while the patient is under general anesthesia. A less obtrusive choice incorporates: